An Act concerning persons found not guilty by reason of lack of mental state; amending K.S.A. 22-3428 and repealing the existing section.
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Kansas:
Section 1. K.S.A. 22-3428 is hereby amended to read as follows: 22- 3428. (1) (a) When a defendant is acquitted and the jury answers in the affirmative to the special question asked pursuant to K.S.A. 22-3221 and amendments thereto, the defendant shall be committed to the state se- curity hospital for safekeeping and treatment. A finding of not guilty and the jury answering in the affirmative to the special question asked pur- suant to K.S.A. 22-3221 and amendments thereto shall be prima facie evidence that the acquitted defendant is presently likely to cause harm to self or others.
(b) Within 90 days of the defendant's admission, the chief medical officer of the state security hospital shall send to the court a written evaluation report. Upon receipt of the report, the court shall set a hearing to determine whether or not the defendant is currently a mentally ill person. The hearing shall be held within 30 days after the receipt by the court of the chief medical officer's report.
(c) The court shall give notice of the hearing to the chief medical officer of the state security hospital, the district or county attorney, the defendant and the defendant's attorney. The court shall inform the de- fendant that such defendant is entitled to counsel and that counsel will be appointed to represent the defendant if the defendant is not financially able to employ an attorney as provided in K.S.A. 22-4503 et seq. and amendments thereto. The defendant shall remain at the state security hospital pending the hearing.
(d) At the hearing, the defendant shall have the right to present ev- idence and cross-examine witnesses. At the conclusion of the hearing, if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant is not currently a mentally ill person, the court shall dismiss the criminal proceeding and discharge the defendant, otherwise the court may commit the defendant to the state security hospital for treatment or may place the defendant on conditional release pursuant to subsection (4).
(2) Subject to the provisions of subsection (3):
(a) Whenever it appears to the chief medical officer of the state se- curity hospital that a person committed under subsection (1)(d) is not likely to cause harm to other persons in a less restrictive hospital envi- ronment, the officer may transfer the person to any state hospital, subject to the provisions of subsection (3). At any time subsequent thereto during which such person is still committed to a state hospital, if the chief med- ical officer of that hospital finds that the person may be likely to cause harm or has caused harm, to others, such officer may transfer the person back to the state security hospital.
(b) Any person committed under subsection (1)(d) may be granted conditional release or discharge as an involuntary patient.
(3) Before transfer of a person from the state security hospital pur- suant to subsection (2)(a) or conditional release or discharge of a person pursuant to subsection (2)(b), the chief medical officer of the state se- curity hospital or the state hospital where the patient is under commit- ment shall give notice to the district court of the county from which the person was committed that transfer of the patient is proposed or that the patient is ready for proposed conditional release or discharge. Such notice shall include, but not be limited to: (a) Identification of the patient; (b) the course of treatment; (c) a current assessment of the defendant's men- tal illness; (d) recommendations for future treatment, if any; and (e) rec- ommendations regarding conditional release or discharge, if any. Upon receiving notice, the district court shall order that a hearing be held on the proposed transfer, conditional release or discharge. The court shall give notice of the hearing to the state hospital or state security hospital where the patient is under commitment and to the district or county attorney of the county from which the person was originally ordered com- mitted and shall order the involuntary patient to undergo a mental eval- uation by a person designated by the court. A copy of all orders of the court shall be sent to the involuntary patient and the patient's attorney. The report of the court ordered mental evaluation shall be given to the district or county attorney, the involuntary patient and the patient's at- torney at least five days prior to the hearing. The hearing shall be held within 30 days after the receipt by the court of the chief medical officer's notice. The involuntary patient shall remain in the state hospital or state security hospital where the patient is under commitment until the hearing on the proposed transfer, conditional release or discharge is to be held. At the hearing, the court shall receive all relevant evidence, including the written findings and recommendations of the chief medical officer of the state security hospital or the state hospital where the patient is under commitment, and shall determine whether the patient shall be trans- ferred to a less restrictive hospital environment or whether the patient shall be conditionally released or discharged. The patient shall have the right to present evidence at such hearing and to cross-examine any wit- nesses called by the district or county attorney. At the conclusion of the hearing, if the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the pa- tient will not be likely to cause harm to self or others if transferred to a less restrictive hospital environment, the court shall order the patient transferred. If the court finds by clear and convincing evidence that the patient is not currently a mentally ill person, the court shall order the patient discharged or conditionally released otherwise, the court shall order the patient to remain in the state security hospital or state hospital where the patient is under commitment. If the court orders the condi- tional release of the patient in accordance with subsection (4), the court may order as an additional condition to the release that the patient con- tinue to take prescribed medication and report as directed to a person licensed to practice medicine and surgery to determine whether or not the patient is taking the medication or that the patient continue to receive periodic psychiatric or psychological treatment.
(4) In order to ensure the safety and welfare of a patient who
is to be conditionally released and the citizenry of the state, the
court may allow the patient to remain in custody at a facility
under the supervision of the secretary of social and rehabilitation
services for a period of time not to exceed 30 days in order to
permit sufficient time for the secretary to prepare recommendations
to the court for a suitable reentry program for the patient. The
reentry program shall be specifically designed to facilitate the
return of the patient to the community as a functioning, self-
supporting citizen, and may include appropriate supportive
provisions for assistance in establishing residency, securing
gainful employment, un- dergoing needed vocational rehabilitation,
receiving marital and family counseling, and such other outpatient
services that appear beneficial. If a patient who is to be
conditionally released will be residing in a county other than the
county where the district court that ordered the conditional
release is located, the court shall transfer venue of the case to
the district court of the other county and send a copy of all of
the court's records of the proceedings to the other court. In all
cases of conditional release the court shall: (a) Order that the
patient be placed under the temporary supervision of
parole and probation services, district court probation
and parole services, community treatment facility or any
appropriate pri- vate agency; and (b) require as a condition
precedent to the release that the patient agree in writing to waive
extradition in the event a warrant is issued pursuant to K.S.A.
22-3428b and amendments thereto.
(5) At any time during the conditional release period, a conditionally released patient, through the patient's attorney, or the county or district attorney of the county in which the district court having venue is located may file a motion for modification of the conditions of release, and the court shall hold an evidentiary hearing on the motion within 15 days of its filing. The court shall give notice of the time for the hearing to the patient and the county or district attorney. If the court finds from the evidence at the hearing that the conditional provisions of release should be modified or vacated, it shall so order. If at any time during the tran- sitional period the designated medical officer or supervisory personnel or the treatment facility informs the court that the patient is not satisfactorily complying with the provisions of the conditional release, the court, after a hearing for which notice has been given to the county or district attorney and the patient, may make orders: (a) For additional conditions of release designed to effect the ends of the reentry program, (b) requiring the county or district attorney to file an application to determine whether the patient is a mentally ill person as provided in K.S.A. 59-2913 and amend- ments thereto, or (c) requiring that the patient be committed to the state security hospital or any state hospital. In cases where an application is ordered to be filed, the court shall proceed to hear and determine the application pursuant to the treatment act for mentally ill persons and that act shall apply to all subsequent proceedings. The costs of all proceedings, the mental evaluation and the reentry program authorized by this section shall be paid by the county from which the person was committed.
(6) In any case in which the defense that the defendant lacked the required mental state pursuant to K.S.A. 22-3220 and amendments thereto is relied on, the court shall instruct the jury on the substance of this section.
(7) As used in this section and K.S.A. 22-3428a and amendments thereto:
(a) ``Likely to cause harm to self or others'' means that the person is likely, in the reasonably foreseeable future, to cause substantial physical injury or physical abuse to self or others or substantial damage to another's property, or evidenced by behavior causing, attempting or threatening such injury, abuse or neglect.
(b) ``Mentally ill person'' means any person who:
(A) Is suffering from a severe mental disorder to the extent that such person is in need of treatment; and
(B) is likely to cause harm to self or others.
(c) ``Treatment facility'' means any mental health center or clinic, psychiatric unit of a medical care facility, psychologist, physician or other institution or individual authorized or licensed by law to provide either inpatient or outpatient treatment to any patient.
Sec. 2. K.S.A. 22-3428 is hereby repealed.
Sec. 3. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its publication in the statute book.
Approved April 3, 1996.